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Articles by Francis X. Hezel, SJ, on the history of Micronesia and a wide range of other topics including education, economics, health issues, human rights, and social problems. The latter include migration, suicide, family change, youth drinking, mental illness, drug use and spirit possession.

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Alcohol and Drug Use in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, by Francis X. Hezel, S.J.

Data on the use of alcohol and drugs by Marshallese based on survey.1997

Alcohol & Drugs

Alcohol and Drug Use in the Federated States of Micronesia, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Data on the use of alcohol and drugs by Micronesians based on survey. 1997

Alcohol & Drugs

Youth Drinking in Micronesia, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Summary of a conference on youth drinking in the islands. 1982

Alcohol & Drugs

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How Much is Enough? US Aid and Free Association, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Island governments are neglecting the long-range vision of self-reliance in their attempt to gain access to US federal programs.1985

Compact

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The Cultural Revolution of the 1960s in Micronesia, by Francis X. Hezel, S.J.

The impact of the cash economy on the family and other social institutions in the islands. 2008

Cultural

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Is That the Best You Can Do? A Tale of Two Micronesian Economies, by Francis X. Hezel, S.J.

Evolution of the economies of FSM and the Marshalls over forty years and our expectations for self-reliance.2006

Economics

An Overview of the FSM Economy, by Francis X. Hezel, S.J.

A forecast of FSM's economic future for the next twenty years and beyond.2003

Economics

Examining the consequences of the Money Economy in the Pacific, by Francis X. Hezel, S.J.

If a growing economy will produce social changes, islanders should anticipate these consequences when making economic choices. 2001

Economics

Sustainable Human Development in the Federated States of Micronesia, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ, with Edwin Q.P. Petteys and Deborah L. Chang

Overview of political, social and economic conditions in FSM. 1997

Economics

Let's Have the Meal Today Rather Than the Fishing Industry Tomorrow, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Local governments are perpetuating the old habits of spending for consumption money that could be used for economic development. 1987

Economics

A Brief Economic History of Micronesia, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

History of the cash economy through the colonial period to the end of trusteeship with figures and tables of exports and imports. 1984

Economics

Yesterday's Myths, Today's Realities, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

The old dreams of self-reliance are yielding to the demands for more jobs and consumer goods.1980

Economics

The New Formula for Self-Reliance, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Islanders today have come to believe that self-reliance does not require any cutback in lifestyle or the flow of money into the islands.1979

Economics

Taking the Long View, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

The immediate pay-off often blinds people to the long-term social, economic or political effects. 1977

Economics

The Micronesian Dilemma: How to Support Expensive Habits and Still Run the Household, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Is the new affluence of the islands putting the hope of independence beyond reach? 1976

Economics

Micronesia: Ten Years After, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Micronesia’s real poverty consists in the affluence that could diminish its national pride. 1974

Economics

Reflections on Micronesia's Economy, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Data on employment, wages, education, and imports shows the islands moving away from self-reliance. 1973

Economics

The Creation of a Colony: The Paradox of Economic Aid to Micronesia, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Trends of a larger US subsidy during the 1960 might lead to permanent colonial status of Micronesia. 1968

Economics

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Thoughts on Community Colleges in Micronesia, by Francis X. Hezel, S.J.

Brief history of the origins of community colleges and suggestions on how they might face the future. 2003

Education

Statistics on Education in Micronesia , by Francis X. Hezel, S.J.

Statistical data on the schools and their performance throughout the region. 2000

Education

Education for What?, by Francis X. Hezel, S.J.

Summary essay on a discussion held on the purpose of public education. 1998

Education

The Price of Education in Micronesia, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Schools are a costly feature of modern society and have negative consequences on the islands’ struggling economies. 1989

Education

Schools in Micronesia Prior to American Administration, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

History of the growth of education in Micronesia up to World War II. 1985

Education

In the Aftermath of the Education Expolosion, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Results of the follow-up survey of all Chuukese high school graduates done in 1984.1985

Education

The Education Explosion in Chuuk, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Results of a survey of all high school graduates showing the rapid expansion of education in Chuuk. 1978

Education

Ghosts of the Past...A Vision of the Future, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Article on Xavier High School and its history on its 25th anniversary. 1977

Education

In Search of a Home: Colonial Education in Micronesia, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

The dynamics of education can alienate the young from their own society, while sharpening their awareness of this alienation. 1975

Education

Recent Theories of the Relationship between Education and Development, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Brief review of four different theories of the interface between education and development. 1974

Education

Who Shall Own the Schools?, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

The importance of giving parents understanding and ownership of what happens in the process of education. 1974

Education

The School Industry, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

The elementary school is the largest economic factor in the village throughout the islands. 1973

Education

A Sad Tale of Long Ago: How Magic Signs were Brought to a Far-off Island, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Fable telling how a people lost their sense of their cultural past after long contact with outsiders. 1973

Education

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The Unmaking of the Micronesian Family, by Francis X. Hezel, S.J.

Changes in the family structure and the social problems that have stemmed from them. 1998

Family change

Changes in the Pohnpeian Family: 1950-1990, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Summary of research on the changes in basic social institutions on Pohnpei after the war. 1992

Family change

The Changing Family in Chuuk: 1950-1990, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ, with Innocente Oneisom

Summary of research on the changes in basic social institutions in Chuuk after the war. 1992

Family change

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Keeping The Information Flow Open: A Key Condition for Good Government in Micronesia, by Francis X. Hezel, S.J.

Cultural practices limit transparency and accountability in the islands. 2006

Government

Looking Ahead to the End of the Trusteeship, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Summary of Micronesia’s Compact negotiations with the US. 1978

Government

Micronesia's Education for Self-Government: Frolicking in the Backyard?, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

The government-run political education program has sacrificed passion and competing views in its effort to be non-partisan. 1975

Government

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Disease in Micronesia: A Historical Survey, by Francis X. Hezel, S.J.

Review of the disease patterns and their effect on mortality over two centuries of contact with the West.2010

Health

The Shifting Burden of Illness, by Francis X. Hezel, S.J.

Comparison of mortality in the 19th century with causes of death today. 2009

Health

WHO Mental Health Research in Micronesia, by Francis X. Hezel, S.J.

Serious mental illness in Micronesia as presented in four different studies. 2003

Health

Health in Micronesia through the Years, by Francis X. Hezel, S.J.

The transition from infectious diseases to the era of non-communicable diseases. 2003

Health

Schizophrenia and Chronic Mental Illness in Micronesia: An Epidemiological Survey, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ, with Michael Wylie

Survey of mental illness throughout FSM, Palau and the Marshalls. 1992

Health

In Search of the Social Roots of Mental Pathology in Micronesia, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

The high rates of mental illness and suicide might be related to stress generated by cultural conflict and change. 1986

Health

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Christianity and Violence in the Pacific, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Weighs whether Christianity in the Pacific has contributed to or diminished violence in the islands.  2011

History Religion

The Man Who was Reputed to be King: David Dean O'Keefe, by Francis X. Hezel, S.J.

Life of the best known trader in the Western Carolines in the 19th century. 2008

History

Chuuk: Caricature of an Island, by Francis X. Hezel, S.J.

Memorial of a Jesuit to his 25 years on Chuuk. 2003

History

Introduction to Francisco Garcia's Life of Diego Luis de San Vitores, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Offers a brief glimpse of the historical context of San Vitores’ work on Guam. 1996

History

The Expensive Taste for Modernity: Caroline and Marshall Islands, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Review of the major economic changes in the islands throughout their history, highlighting some of the social and political consequences. 1992

History

Recolonizing Islands and Decolonizing History, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Reflections on the historiography of the Pacific. 1991

History

New Directions in Pacific History: A Practitioner's Critical View, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Reactions to the new canons governing Pacific history. 1988

History

From Conquest to Colonization: Spain in the Marianas 1690-1740, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

History of the later period of Spanish rule in the Marianas. 1988

History

Journey of Faith: Blessed Diego of the Marianas, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Short biography of Diego Luis de San Vitores. 1985

History

From Conversion to Conquest: The Early Spanish Mission in the Marianas, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

History of the Marianas from the arrival of missionaries to the end of the fighting between Spanish and Chamorros. 1982

History

In the Wake of Foam and Blood, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Account of hostilities in 1565 between Spanish on the San Lucas and Chuukese people. 1979

History

The Role of the Beachcombers in the Caroline Islands, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Beachcombers served different functions, depending on the island on which they resided. 1978

History

A Yankee Trader in Yap: Crayton Philo Holcomb, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

History of the life and work of Holcomb on Yap. 1975

History

Dumont d'Urville on Truk, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Account of the visit of a French naval expedition to Chuuk in early 19th century. 1974

History

The Beginnings of Foreign Contact in Truk, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

History of Western impact on Chuuk through the 19th century. 1973

History

The First European Visit to Truk, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Translation from Spanish of the report of the visit of San Lucas in 1564. 1973

History

Early European Contact with the Western Carolines: 1525-1750, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Account of Arellano’s stopover in Chuuk in 1565. 1972

History

Westernization of Truk: A Backward Glance, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

History of Western impact on Chuuk through the 19th century. 1972

History

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In Search of a Talking Point on Human Rights, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Human rights language, as a product of Western development, may require translation into more terms more compatible with island cultures.1995

Justice & Law

The Struggle for Justice...But Under Whose Terms?, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

The goals of the struggle for justice can be better achieved by using island terms.1995

Justice & Law

The Cruel Dilemma: Money Economies in the Pacific, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

The ways in which a cash economy impacts on island life and how the church might respond.1992

Justice & Law

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Christianity and Violence in the Pacific, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Weighs whether Christianity in the Pacific has contributed to or diminished violence in the islands.  2011

History Religion

Religion in the Marshall Islands, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

A brief review of the main features of religious practice and belief in the Marshalls from traditional to modern times. 2011

Religion

A Life at the Edge of the World, by Francis X. Hezel, S.J.

American Jesuits in Micronesia and their mission as seen by one Jesuit.2009

Religion

Christianity in Micronesia, by Francis X. Hezel, S.J.

A brief history of the integration of Christian churches into island cultures, highlighting the changes on both in the course of this process. 2008

Religion

Integration of Catholicism into Guam and its People, by Francis X. Hezel, S.J.

Brief look at the assimilation of Spanish Catholicism and Chamorro culture. 2005

Religion

Stepping Stones to Somewhere Else, by Francis X. Hezel, S.J.

Brief description of the social and political context of the church’s work in the islands. 2001

Religion

German Catholic Missions in Micronesia, by Francis X. Hezel, S.J.

German Capuchins in the Carolines and Missionaries of the Sacred Heart in the Marshalls and their contributions. 2001

Religion

Micronesian Seminar: 25 Years, by Francis X. Hezel, S.J.

Description of MicSem, its mission, and its accomplishments. 1999

Religion

Congeries of Spirits, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Essay on the pre-christian religions in Micronesia. 1995

Religion

The Church in Micronesia, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Historical sketch of the Jesuit mission through the 20th century. 1995

Religion

When the Wind Blows, the Islands will Rock, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

A critical look at the new religious movements in the Pacific. 1994

Religion

Serving the Poor in Micronesia: One Approach , by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

The church’s mission of working with the poor sometimes involves public education. 1987

Religion

Historical Sketch of the Caroline-Marshall Mission of the New York Province, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Brief history of the Jesuit mission in Micronesia from the end of World War II. 1986

Religion

Jesuit Martyrs in Micronesia, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Account of the deaths of the 20 Jesuits who were killed in the course of their missionary work in the islands. 1983

Religion

Indigenization as a Missionary Goal in the Caroline-Marshall Islands, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Traces the route to inculturation for Protestant and Catholic churches. 1978

Religion

Spanish Capuchins in the Carolines, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

A history of mission efforts by the Spanish Capuchins from 1885 to the end of the 19th century. 1971

Religion

Self-support of Programs and Institutions of the Catholic Church, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Self-support by local people of their church may increase their self-esteem. 1971

Religion

Catholic Missions in the Carolines and Marshall Islands, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

A historical and bibliographic survey of the Catholic missions in Micronesia. 1970

Religion

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American Anthropology's Contribution to Social Problems Research in Micronesia, by Francis X. Hezel, S.J.

Review of the contribution of American anthropologists to research on social problems in Micronesia. 1999

Social Issues

Distribution of Spirit Possession and Trance in Micronesia, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ, with Jay Dobbin

Maps the history of spirit possession and trance throughout the region. 1996

Social Issues

Possession and Trance in Chuuk, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ, with Jay Dobbin

Traces the evolution of spirit possession in Chuuk from planned to spontaneous, while showing the changes in how possession functions. 1995

Social Issues

Spirit Possession in Chuuk: A Socio-Cultural Interpretation, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Explains Chuukese spirit possession as a cultural strategy for dealing with family problems. 1992

Social Issues

The Effects of Modernization on Three Areas of Island Life, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Modernization imposes difficult choices, especially regarding gender equality, fairness to those outside the family, and balance of concern between the household and the extended family. 1987

Social Issues

The Anthropologist and Social Problems in Micronesia, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

The articles lists six major social problems that could profitably be researched by anthropologists. 1978

Social Issues

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Suicide on Guam: Putting It in Historical Perspective, by Francis X. Hezel, S.J.

Brief historical review of suicide on Guam. 2001

Suicide

What Can We Do to Prevent Suicide?, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Suggestions for suicide prevention strategies. 1989

Suicide

Suicide in the Micronesian Family, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

The changes in the extended family brought about by the rise of the cash economy contributed to the rise in suicide. 1989

Suicide

Truk Suicide Epidemic and Social Change, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Explains the causes and psychodynamics of Micronesian suicide. 1986

Suicide

Cultural Patterns in Trukese Sucide, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Presents the close cultural pattern in suicides among Chuukese. 1984

Suicide

Micronesia's Hanging Spree, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Early attempt to offer data about the initial stages of the suicide explosion. 1976

Suicide

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New Trends in Micronesian Migration, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ, with Michael Levin

Survey of changing patterns of migration ten years after the Compact. 1996

Migration

A Second Look at FSM Migration to Guam, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ

Review of migration data in view of a recent Guam bill to limit welfare benefits to migrants. 1995

Migration

The Great Flight Northward: FSM Migration to Guam, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ, with Thomas McGrath

Analysis of migration to Guam during the first years of the Compact. 1989

Migration

Micronesian Emigration: The Brain Drain in Palau, Marshalls and the Federated States, by Francis X. Hezel, SJ, with Michael Levin

Historical survey of migration from the early trusteeship. 1986

Migration

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